Medical peer review seeks to provide accurate, relevant and timely information to the decision makers in health care facilities. As such, these reviews are important for the overall efficiency of the health care system. However, the fact that a peer reviewer has a conflict of interest when evaluating the case studies of a specific practitioner can cause the review to fail to accurately portray the situation on the whole.
One such review, performed by the American College of Rheumatology found that there were many cases where the conclusions reached regarding what treatments should be prescribed actually resulted in more harm being done to the patient than good. The review looked at four different rheumatology clinics that were each involved in a case study.